Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality. The coefficient varies between 0, which reflects complete equality and 100%, which indicates complete inequality (one person has all the income or consumption, all others have none). The Gini coefficient is above 40 in four (Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and DRC) out of nine Nile countries (no data are available for Eritrea, South Sudan), indicating substantial inequalities of income and wealth within these countries.
Where estimates are available, rural poverty incidence exceed urban poverty incidence. In terms of population below international poverty lines, again Burundi and DR Congo are the poorest at 81.3% and 87.7% respectively. Egypt has lowest $1.5 a day poverty incidence (1.7%) and the mean income shortfall is as low as half a percentage point. For $3 a day, poverty rates are understandably higher, although almost similar rankings hold.