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The Nile River spatial extent from southnorth (range in latitude of 4oS to 35oN), creates various climates zones with distinct features, diverse and rich natural resources of wetlands, water resources, biophysical and ecological zones.

Climate change is not necessarily a threat for the water supply, however the uncertainty is very large. Within the range of the uncertainty many scenarios are thinkable that are very beneficial. However, adopting one of these scenarios and optimize the water management system to these conditions cannot be recommended, as the economic losses could be large if the climate trend goes the other way. Given the uncertainties on the future water supply, flood and drought frequencies, the most sensible option to cope with climate change in the design of water management structures and strategies is to prepare for more variable conditions than currently recorded. For example if the design criteria for a structure is to protect against the 1/10 flood, analyse how much extra it would cost to protect against a 1/50 flood. Designing in this manner provides time to react if the climate and water supply would change and additional measures can be taken. As the Nile is very sensitive to any change in climate, it is of utmost importance to accurately monitor the flows of the Nile and its tributaries. This also counts for regular data validation and time series analysis. As the potential changes, reflected by the wet and dry scenarios, are beyond the capacity of one country to adapt better co-operation in the Nile basin between the Nile countries is a prerequisite.

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